As well as producing the book about Career Education and Development (see previous tab) we have developed four Scales (see next tab) to try to find out where the career thinking of students is at, so that career practitioner in schools and/or universities, can provide programs and resources to assist them if required. The information personnel in schools and universities get from students completing the Scales, will enable them to determine the level of career thinking of the individual student and/or a class group of students and/or a grade/level group of students. This information will enable the personnel to determine how to tailor programs to meet the career development need of their students

The Book and Scales are based on a theoretical, research and practical framework around the concept of Career Education and Development

Career Education and Development (CED) is defined as the development of skills, attitudes and understandings through a planned program of learning experiences that empowers students to make informed decisions about school and post-school options and pathways and to enable effective transition to, and participation in, working life. (adapted from the National Career Education Strategy, 2019).

The model which underpins CED has three major components: Understanding (centre circle, 3), Actions (middle circle, 4), and Attitudes (outer circle 2) as shown in the diagram below.

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Model which underpins Career Education and Development (McCowan et al. 2022)

The aims of Career Education and Development can be expressed in terms of the key tasks that students are asked to undertake and these reflect the 9 sub-components of the model.

through understanding

to develop the knowledge and understanding of themselves as individuals, including their actual and potential personal resources

to develop knowledge and understanding of the general structures of post-school life, the range of opportunities and pathways, and the demands, rewards, and satisfaction associated with them; and

to develop an understanding of the range of influences that may have significant impact on the options available, the decisions made, and the implementation of these decisions. They could be as indirect as economic or as direct as the opinions of friends.

through actions

to develop short-term, mid-term, and long-term career-related goals and plans;

to learn how to make considered decisions in re anticipated career and life roles;

to be proactive and take actions to effectively manage the implementation of considered decisions and the transitions from school to post-school educational and vocational opportunities; and

to effectively use the key learning task of reflecting on past decisions and actions, to learn from them, and apply this learning to future decisions and actions.

and through attitudes:

to build confidence in the students’ capacity to effectively self-manage their career decisions and career transitions.

Underpinning Framework

Below is the integrated framework of CED based on the framework of predictors, influences, components, and outcomes of career preparedness by Marciniak et al. (2020) and modified by McCowan et al. (2022)

The Scales have been subject to rigorous research through a reputable Australian University and a great deal of information and examples of CED programs and activities are provided in the publication listed in the Latest Book tab in this site Introducing Career Education and Development: A guide for personnel in educational institutions in both developed and developing countries.